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MobileNetv2 is an efficient convolutional neural network architecture for mobile devices. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

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## PocketFlow

Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window. Add smaller model. Jun 19, Fix model. Add FLOPs counter. May 22, Modularize code. Jun 15, May 30, Jun 25, Add todo. Aug 28, Switch to SGD. Add input size parameter. Switch to 0. May 14, By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

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Learn more. Asked 3 months ago. Active 3 months ago. Viewed 34 times. Shivam Garg. Shivam Garg Shivam Garg 71 3 3 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. Q2 Community Roadmap. The Unfriendly Robot: Automatically flagging unwelcoming comments. Featured on Meta.

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Dark Mode Beta - help us root out low-contrast and un-converted bits. Related 3. Hot Network Questions. Question feed. Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled.G-RMI is the team name attending the challenge. It is not a name for a proposed approach because they do not have any innovative ideas such as modifying the deep learning architecture to win the challenge.

They also analysed the effects of other parameters such as input image sizes and number of region proposals. Finally, an ensemble of several models achieved the state-of-the-art results and won the challenge. And it is published in CVPR with more than citations. Sik-Ho Tsang Medium. The object detectors are named as meta-architectures here. Faster R-CNN. We can output different number of proposals at RPN the first stage. Fewer proposals, faster running time, or vice versa. Sign in. Sik-Ho Tsang Follow.

Meta-architectures The object detectors are named as meta-architectures here. SSD It uses a single feed-forward convolutional network to directly predict classes and anchor offsets without requiring a second stage per-proposal classification operation. In the second stagethese typically box proposals are used to crop features from the same intermediate feature map ROI pooling which are subsequently fed to the remainder of the feature extractor e. In the second stage, positive-sensitive score maps are used such that crops ROI pooling are taken from the last layer of features prior to prediction.

Accuracy vs Time. Effect of Feature Extractor. Effect of Object Size. Effect of Image Size. Effect of the Number of Proposals.

FLOPs Analysis. For Inception and MobileNet models, this ratio is typically less than 1. Memory Analysis. High correlation with running time with larger and more powerful feature extractors requiring much more memory.

As with speed, MobileNet is the cheapest, requiring less than 1Gb total memory in almost all settings. Good localization at. Ensembling and Multicrop. G-RMI : With the above 5 models ensembled and multicrop yielded the final model. It outperforms the winner in and 2nd place in Note: There is no multiscale training, horizontal flipping, box refinement, box voting, or global context. Thus, it is encouraging for diversity, which did help much compared with using a hand selected ensemble.

And ensembling and multicrop were responsible for almost 7 points of improvement over a single model. Detections from 5 Different Models. Towards Data Science A Medium publication sharing concepts, ideas, and codes.

PhD, Researcher. I share what I've learnt and done. Towards Data Science Follow. A Medium publication sharing concepts, ideas, and codes.Read this paper on arXiv. Currently, the neural network architecture design is mostly guided by the indirect metric of computation complexity, i. However, the direct metric, e. Thus, this work proposes to evaluate the direct metric on the target platform, beyond only considering FLOPs. Based on a series of controlled experiments, this work derives several practical guidelines for efficient network design.

Accordingly, a new architecture is presented, called ShuffleNet V2. Comprehensive ablation experiments verify that our model is the state-of-the-art in terms of speed and accuracy tradeoff.

The architecture of deep convolutional neutral networks CNNs has evolved for years, becoming more accurate and faster. Besides accuracy, computation complexity is another important consideration. Real world tasks often aim at obtaining best accuracy under a limited computational budget, given by target platform e. Group convolution and depth-wise convolution are crucial in these works.

However, FLOPs is an indirect metric. It is an approximation of, but usually not equivalent to the direct metric that we really care about, such as speed or latency.

Therefore, using FLOPs as the only metric for computation complexity is insufficient and could lead to sub-optimal design. The discrepancy between the indirect FLOPs and direct speed metrics can be attributed to two main reasons. First, several important factors that have considerable affection on speed are not taken into account by FLOPs.

One such factor is memory access cost MAC. Such cost constitutes a large portion of runtime in certain operations like group convolution.

### 旷视科技提出新型轻量架构ShuffleNet V2

It could be bottleneck on devices with strong computing power, e. This cost should not be simply ignored during network architecture design. Another one is degree of parallelism. A model with high degree of parallelism could be much faster than another one with low degree of parallelism, under the same FLOPs. Second, operations with the same FLOPs could have different running time, depending on the platform.

With these observations, we propose that two principles should be considered for effective network architecture design. First, the direct metric e. Second, such metric should be evaluated on the target platform.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information.

I want to design a convolutional neural network which occupy GPU resource no more than Alexnet. Is there any tools to do it,please? This supports most wide known layers. For custom layers you will have to calculate yourself. For future visitors, if you use Keras and TensorFlow as Backend then you can try the following example. Even if not using Keras, it may be worth it to recreate your nets in Keras just so you can get the flops counts. Learn more. Asked 2 years, 11 months ago. Active 2 years, 4 months ago.

Viewed 14k times. StalkerMuse StalkerMuse 2 2 gold badges 8 8 silver badges 21 21 bronze badges. Shai: that doesn't answer the question. The resolution of that link is that half the problem is an open request in TF. This is Caffe. Active Oldest Votes. As of the day of this comment, this webpage dgschwend. RunMetadata with tf. Graph as sess: K. Tobias Scheck Tobias Scheck 5 5 silver badges 14 14 bronze badges. How it's related to en. If I run this on Mobilenet V2, I get flops of 7.

I've changed the code to fit the tf 2. If I use the implementation gist. The flops are multiplications and additions, to get the MACs value you should divide the result by 2.PocketFlow is an open-source framework for compressing and accelerating deep learning models with minimal human effort.

Deep learning is widely used in various areas, such as computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language translation.

However, deep learning models are often computational expensive, which limits further applications on mobile devices with limited computational resources. PocketFlow aims at providing an easy-to-use toolkit for developers to improve the inference efficiency with little or no performance degradation. The proposed framework mainly consists of two categories of algorithm components, i. Given an uncompressed original model, the learner module generates a candidate compressed model using some randomly chosen hyper-parameter combination.

The candidate model's accuracy and computation efficiency is then evaluated and used by hyper-parameter optimizer module as the feedback signal to determine the next hyper-parameter combination to be explored by the learner module.

After a few iterations, the best one of all the candidate models is output as the final compressed model. A learner refers to some model compression algorithm augmented with several training techniques as shown in the figure above. Below is a list of model compression algorithms supported in PocketFlow:. All the above model compression algorithms can trained with fast fine-tuning, which is to directly derive a compressed model from the original one by applying either pruning masks or quantization functions.

The resulting model can be fine-tuned with a few iterations to recover the accuracy to some extent. Alternatively, the compressed model can be re-trained with the full training data, which leads to higher accuracy but usually takes longer to complete.

To further reduce the compressed model's performance degradation, we adopt network distillation to augment its training process with an extra loss term, using the original uncompressed model's outputs as soft labels. Additionally, multi-GPU distributed training is enabled for all learners to speed-up the time-consuming training process. For model compression algorithms, there are several hyper-parameters that may have a large impact on the final compressed model's performance.

It can be quite difficult to manually determine proper values for these hyper-parameters, especially for developers that are not very familiar with algorithm details. Recently, several AutoML systems, e. Cloud AutoML from Google, have been developed to train high-quality machine learning models with minimal human effort. Particularly, the AMC algorithm He et al. In PocketFlow, we introduce the hyper-parameter optimizer module to iteratively search for the optimal hyper-parameter setting. The hyper-parameter setting is optimized through an iterative process.You also need to worry about:.

They can run their models on fat desktop GPUs or compute clusters. The best way to measure the speed of a model is to run it a number of times in a row and take the average elapsed time. The time you measure for any single run may have a fairly large margin of error — the CPU or GPU may be busy doing other tasks drawing the screen, for example — but when you average over multiple runs this will significantly shrink that error. For their V2 layers they used a depth multiplier of 1.

It turns out my hunch was right — the V2 model was in fact slower!

**Depthwise Separable Convolution - A FASTER CONVOLUTION!**

One way to get an idea of the speed of your model is to simply count how many computations it does. Why multiply-accumulate? Many of the computations in neural networks are dot productssuch as this:. Here, w and x are two vectors, and the result y is a scalar a single number. Typically a layer will have multiple outputs, and so we compute many of these dot products. The above formula has n of these MACCs.

Note: Technically speaking there are only n - 1 additions in the above formula, one less than the number of multiplications. Think of the number of MACCs as being an approximation, just like Big-O notation is an approximation of the complexity of an algorithm. In a fully-connected layer, all the inputs are connected to all the outputs. The computation performed by a fully-connected layer is:. The result y contains the output values computed by the layer and is also a vector of size J.

To compute the number of MACCs, we look at where the dot products happen. For a fully-connected layer that is in the matrix multiplication matmul x, W. A matrix multiply is simply a whole bunch of dot products. Each dot product is between the input x and one column in the matrix W. Recall that a dot product has one less addition than multiplication anyway, so adding this bias value simply gets absorbed in that final multiply-accumulate. Note: Sometimes the formula for the fully-connected layer is written without an explicit bias value.

If the fully-connected layer directly follows a convolutional layer, its input size may not be specified as a single vector length I but perhaps as a feature map with a shape such as7, 7.

## comments so far

## Kazirg Posted on 10:12 pm - Oct 2, 2012

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